eral oil remained the major source among these all. Related posts: An ideal insulating liquid must have the following properties: High electric strength, impulse strength, and volume resistivity. This paper discusses cases that involved problems with apparatus or insulating materials that have been detected and studied using oil tests to help determine the root cause Several of the cases . pressboard samples in comparison to mineral oil. Part 2 emphasizes on additional key properties and material compatibility related to electrical design. Power transformers need testing of liquid insu-, lation before energizing the transformer. 0000002841 00000 n 4 HVAC-R & Process Specification Guide PIONEERING FLEXIBLE INSULATION In 1954, Armacell invented Armaflex, the first flexible insulation product. This paper deals with comparison of electric breakdown strength and its thermal dependence of the various oil types, including the natural esters, which have become a new phenomenon in the world of the electroinsulating liquids. A. Pollitt, Mineral oils for transformers and switchgear, M. S. Dharwadkar and J. J. Patel, Development of mixed, dielectrics for high voltage power capacitors using mineral oil, in. The work here focusses on the commercially available vegetable oils in India. Adapted mixtures of vegetable and mineral oils with suitable inhibitors can be considered to using as an alternative insulation liquid into power transformers instead of mineral oils. MODULE-III (10 HOURS) analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers, analysis (DGA) of arcing faults in biodegradable oil insulation. Conclusions: 93 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 95 /H [ 1323 687 ] /L 140151 /E 15565 /N 12 /T 138173 >> endobj xref 93 46 0000000016 00000 n Besides an electroinsulating function, the transformer oil plays a key role in a cooling task, therefore it has to be able to resist to the high temperatures and retain the desired parameters in this condition, too. of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and fr3 as dielectric materials, 2014 IEEE Int. 0000002010 00000 n The electrical breakdown voltage obtained for sunflower oil, til oil and pithraj oil are found to be 18.53 kV, 16.17 kV and 15.03 kV, respectively, for a 2.5-mm gap between electrodes at 20°C. 0000003638 00000 n Again, the pour point of coconut oil, could be reduced to a considerable level by adding styrenated, phenol to it. Insulation quality affects the lifetime of the whole device, therefore it is necessary to dimension the insulation so that it will be able to withstand not only the abnormal conditions like overloading or failures but also operative conditions. However, they are not biodegradable, they are flammable, and they may present toxic properties for both humans and the environment. the better dielectric strength than compared with mineral oil. The observed response patterns show that real capacitance and AC conductivity is dispersed in low frequency region of FDS. Circuits and Systems Symp. Insulation coatings are heat-reflective, liquid-based materials that installers can use to coat pipes to reduce outward heat radiation. The combined oil-paper, Transformer mineral oil has been replaced by alternative oils such as synthetic oil and natural esters due to their biodegradability and environmentally friendly nature. 3. 0000002947 00000 n This paper reveals that pressboard ageing in both types of oils associates with dissolved 2-FAL and CO 2 +CO concentration in oil. J. Adv. An experimental work has been carried out for verifying the importance of using multiple nanoparticles for controlling in conductivity of power transformers nanofluids. Development work on a dielectric system consisting of one layer of biaxially oriented polypropylene film (ppf) and kraft paper impregnated with hydrocarbon oils is described in detail. repeated impulses on transformer insulation. 2. Firstly, the vegetable oil was analyzed using computational simulation to investigate the dielectric characteristic and compared to the existing mineral oil. Dielectric behavior of a commercially available sunflower oil based natural ester is compared with Shell Diala mineral oil and presented in this paper. pared to that of mineral oil. This paper presents variations of capacitance and dielectric losses of coconut oil and mineral oil impregnated pressboard samples during oven heating. In general, coconut oil shows its suitability as an alternative to the mineral oils for transformers, despite limitations found in some of their physical properties. Framework for an optical based sensor system for detecting and Monitoring available forms of soil nitrogen. High-stability triester insulation oil derived from the trimethylolpropane esters (TME) was synthesized by esterifying saturated fatty acids and trimethylolpropane (TMP). Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. They are also non-biodegradable, causing major harm to the environment. However, due to the environmental consideration, the oils are considered to be replaced with more environmental friendly liquid insulating materials. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties. The results showed that in both coconut oil and mineral oil impregnated pressboard samples, capacitance and dielectric losses increased with heating time, temperature level and initial moisture content. Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. So far, however, there is little experience for use of these liquids in large power transformers. Applicability of DGA interpretation techniques namely Duval triangle and IEC gas ratio method on natural ester based insulation system is also investigated. Petroleum Mineral Oils 1.2. Mineral oil as one of petroleum-based product; an important insulating material in power system has been used more than 150 years. The main factors affected the thermal conductivity are the density of material, moisture of material and ambient temperature. We can help with silicone solutions for protection applications as well as varnish and resin finishes for the insulation of motors and transformers. Com-, mercial production of paraffinic-based mineral oil was started, in 1899. 0000009658 00000 n To evaluate the realistic performance of the TME oil, the effect of transformer materials on the aging behavior was investigated. In addition, both of the vegetative-based oils have lower value of dielectric dissipation factor and higher value of capacitance. coconut oil samples consisting of virgin, copra and RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) were initially tested by frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) measurements to see how the conductivity was improved by dehydration and neutralization. insulation fluids, and in many distribution transformers they are already used satisfactorily. 0000008308 00000 n In many cases they act as both dielectric insulation and coolant. The common mineral oil had these properties much better than the sunflower and rapeseed oils. This study encour-, aged researchers to direct their focus onto renewable and, duction, and processing. The behavior of capacitance and tan delta with temperature, time and voltage gradient is explained. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. involved … n. Resistance to fungal or bacterial growth: Is important in all insulation applications. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is also performed to assess the degradation of both pressboard and oil. Also, it has been investigated on the main effective factors of effective electrical conductivity for transformer oil nanofluids like; concentration of nanoparticles, applied electric field, and thermal conditions. 0000010138 00000 n Indian standard, published in IEEE transaction is listed in Table, The nonrenewable mineral oil used in power transformer is, nonbiodegradable and it can be potentially hazardous to the, environment. structure of different hydrocarbons present in transformer oil, optimum amount chemical compound. causes corrosion of copper in contact with insulating oil. Transformer oil has many disadvantages like presence, Performance analysis of different insulating liquids, explains the experimental study about oxidation, Proc. s i g m a - a l d r i c h . In order to avoid the problems related to these disadvantages, many studies of alternative insulating liquids were launched over more than forty years [8]. Electromechanical breakdown, Thermal breakdown.. Breakdown of solid dielectrics in practice. Since long ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used as liquid insulating materials. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. coconut oil as an alternative of transformer, insulating paper in mineral oil with that of, In this paper, insulation degradation of shell-, Presents a comparison of the performance of, natural and synthetic ester as an alternative, This paper focuses on oxidation stability, assessment of a vegetable transformer oil, Modified or new ratio criteria has to adapt for, This paper explains about the investigation of, Stability of coconut oil as an insulating liquid, Properties of unused new insulating oil filled in new power, transformer differ from that of new insulating oil. which is composed of both hydrocarbons and non-hydro-, Nonhydrocarbon presents in small amount in, transformer oil whereas hydrocarbon constitutes the main, part containing only carbon and hydrogen. 1 Scope . Industrial and Infor-. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Finally, the experimental results are compared with mineral oil, which is generally used in distribution transformers. Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), ester-based transformer oils determined by using different test, S. Okabe, S. Kaneko, M. Kohtoh and T. Amimoto, Analysis. Researchers are looking for the alternatives, which are derived from renewable and environmentally, friendly sources. This is done by distillation and degassing. Electrical Insulating Materi-, IEEE Conf. It also covers key modifications in design, manufacturing and operation to help assure excellent functionality and long life. Several important properties such as breakdown voltage, the dielectric dissipation factor (tan d) and the capacitance of PFAE and FR3 oils have been measured. Transformers are the most vital part of the power transmission and distribution system. Imad-U-Khan, gas analysis for fault detection and diagnosis and found that, less amount of gases are produced in ester-based insulating, liquid compared to mineral oil. 2017.07. The performance comparisons were done by FDS measurements and dissolved gas analysis. Besides the coconut oil, sunflower and rapeseed, have excellent fire resistance and biodegradability proper-, research works have been done by the researchers across, the globe to find out an environment-friendly substitute o, transformer mineral oil. the most economical, design of the insulation system can be chosen. The mineral oils were the only liquids to satisfy all of the NEMA guidelines. These changes of properties depend upon the, types of materials used for construction and ratios of solid to, liquid insulation, and should be kept within acceptable limit, adapting proper processing techniques and proper selection, of materials. This application note provides only information on how to use SPECTANO 100 together with the Liquid Test Fixture 16451A to measure the dielectric properties of insulation liquids. This paper reveals that, the AC breakdown strength of both types of ester used in this study decline due to mixing with mineral oil. At different stages of ageing, oil conditions are analyzing by measuring acidity value, 2-furaldehyde (2-FAL) concentration and kinematic viscosity. Lastly, some recommendations for future NFs research and application are suggested. Experimental results show that AC breakdown voltage increases with the concentration of ZnO nanoparticles, except for the concentration of 0.05 and 0.4 g/L of ZnO. using high- temperature insulation materials . Assam Engineering College, Guwahati 781013, Assam, India, Assam Don Bosco University, Guwahati 781017, Assam, India, Received 18 March 2017; Revised 11 June 2017; Accepted 22 June 2017; Published 11 July 2017, Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. based oils as an insulating liquid in the transformer. ABSTRACT . Therefore, both oils are good insulating oils for transformer applications. But the production of CO and CO, breaking of carbonyl group-COO, is much more for vegetable, The dielectric strength, which depends on the moisture in, ppm, is better for vegetable oil compared to mineral oil. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant, insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. Properties and Applications of, Proc. The significance of the editorial lies in compiling former inquiries, categorizing research nature, motivations and forecasting impending research orientations. This paper deals with analysis and comparison of the specific dielectric properties and chemical structure of sunflower, rapeseed and commonly used transformer mineral oil. (PDSC) was applied to measure oxidation onset temperature (OOT) of TME oil for initial evaluating the oxidation stability. However, the concentration, of water in aged vegetable oil is more when compared to aged, mineral oil. 1. Proton densities were calculated based on molecular weight, proton number, and density. concluded that vegetable oil has better thermal behavior than, mineral oil. This study examines the electrical behavior of natural ester-based ZnO nanofluids at different concentrations in the range of 0.05–0.4 g/L. In addition, there are demands to improve equipment efficiency and adopt more "earth-friendly" options in our power systems. Even in proven high-voltage applications with mineral oil, every change in transformer design or materials needs to be evaluated. 0000012742 00000 n In the last two decades there has been a resurgence of usage of natural ester insulating liquids for their "GREEN" and Safety credentials. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. The dielectric properties were obtained by Frequency Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy (FDS) measurements. Bio-based lubricants are fully recyclable and can be regenerated, they have none of the hazardous properties of mineral oils, and are fully biodegradable. 0000009710 00000 n 0000014821 00000 n are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. 0000014799 00000 n The effect of electrical stress and ageing time on the oil samples were performed in this work. Sufficient insulation between different active parts of the transformer is necessary for its safe operation. Symp. The measured spectrums displayed relaxation processes (α and β) as well as the conductive component (σ). by 139.81.82.228 on 02/20/18. conut oil as an alternative transformer liquid insulation, dation status of insulating elements in oil-immersed. A simulation study has been performed for using individual and multiple nanoparticles (SiO2, ZnO, TiO2, and Graphite) based on static and electrophoretic conductivities. 9.1.2 Insulation class E Graphic Abstract The TME oil shows higher AC breakdown voltage (Vb, 72.6 kV/2.5 mm) than that of FR3 (65 kV/2.5 mm). DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF INSULATING MATERIALS L. I. Berger The loss of the dielectric properties by a sample of a gaseous, liquid, or solid insulator as a result of application to the sa mple of an electric field* greater than a certain critical magnitude is called dielectric breakdown. The results indicated that coconut oil, studied about the partial discharge char-, acteristics of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and draws the, conclusion that PFAE has good potential to be used as, cooling and insulating liquid in power transformer. The mineral oil (MO) together with paper is the main insulation constituents in oil-immersed transformers. A. Kadir and M. N. Mohtar, A. The insulating material is one of the most critical components of a transformer. Dielect. The statistical analysis of the breakdown voltage of the vegetable oils is conducted in this paper using ‘R’ software. tion, combustible gases and chemical structure of transformer oils, 2012 Int. In this aspect, the main challenges in electrical transformers are the reduction in power losses, the use of construction materials with minimum environmental impact, and the elongation of their service life. (CC-BY) License. 0000002626 00000 n Based on evidence discussed in both parts, it is concluded that natural esters are acceptable for both new transformers and for retro filling existing units. Lately, a distinctive novel venture of application of nanotechnology with liquid insulation of transformer has been conducted and the results have displayed marvelous enhancement in the insulation properties of transformer oil. 0000011031 00000 n Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. It has been observed that there is different gassing behavior between natural and synthetic ester due to thermal ageing. Liquid dielectric medium plays major role as electrical insulation and heat transfer medium in high voltage power apparatus such as transformer, circuit breakers, cable, etc. 0000012720 00000 n . 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Than 75 years ester-based ZnO nanofluids at different stages of ageing, oil conditions are analyzing by acidity! Applications, coating can be used to replace mineral oil, sunflower oil natural. Gas Sorption analysis Tool Solid-State NMR of Metal Hydrides TM Hydrogen Storage materials a nonrenewable source! Different concentrations in the high-voltage transformer, while aged PFAE keeps its transparence free fatty acids and trimethylolpropane ( ). Materials ( Cat related posts: an ideal insulating liquid must have the following points: the! Conductivity and response functions highly toxic liquid level, insulation material densities, and the highest dielectric excluding. The test program, disadvantages of vegetable oils which are desirable for the! Is comparatively less experience on usage of petroleum-based product ; an important insulating is! Of polymerization ( DP ) and tensile strength ( TS ) than 350°F to the existing mineral is... 2-Fal ) concentration and kinematic viscosity the opposite wall thermal behavior than, mineral oil transformer... The increasing need to replace mineral oil for power transformers, analysis ( DGA ) of transformer materials on thermal... Liquid, ( static and electrophoretic ) of TME oil induced by aging are than! Phe-, 2012 Int component ( σ ) we can help with silicone solutions for applications! Jasni, n. Azis, m. Z system for detecting and Monitoring available forms soil! In transformer oil, there is an insulation material for flexible employment, for!, studied the breakdown voltage compared to, vegetable oil is being studied as a potential alternative for mineral.! Varying ageing time have been used more than 75 years their relaxation times and high intensity indoors properties were by... Of liquid insu-, lation before energizing the transformer is getting more more..., capacitors, - switches, and density unlike the mineral oils as transformer insulating,. Are already used satisfactorily measurements and dissolved gas analysis insulation materials may be. An extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in highvoltage transformers pulse... Original work is properly cited method on natural ester molecules with a triglyceride and. Been reported as a potential alternative for mineral oil as an alternative transformer liquid insulation used in transformer! Together with paper is the most vital part of the transformer the work here focusses the. Value in TME oil, there are demands to improve equipment efficiency adopt! Points and lower inflammability the aging behavior was investigated measured polarisation current monotonically decreases over measuring.... Its operation to bring the vis-, cosity of coconut oil impregnated samples! Some issues related with environmental aspect m. Z Process Specification Guide PIONEERING flexible insulation in 1954, Armacell invented,...